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Long-tailed Tit

Aegithalos caudatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ополовник | Кезқұйрық шымшық
adult

2012-10-26
Eastern Kazakstan, Ust-Kamenogorsk. Komsomolskiy Ostrov.
© Vladimir Shefer

Distribution

Irregularly breeds in the valley of middle and lower current of Ural between Kolovertnoe and Budarino; on Kokchetav upland (Zerenda, Dubrava, Beloye lake), near Borovoye; in Kazakh Upland (Bayanaul, Karkaralinsk, Kaynar, Kyzylray); in pine forests on Irtysh river in Semipalatinsk area; in Kalbinskiy Altai; in Southwest Altai (Ridder, Bukhtarma valley, Markakol lake); and in Saur. Small flock (brood?) was recorded in Kurgaldzhino Reserve on Nura valley at October 10 2004. Found on breeding in Dzhungarskiy Alatau near Topolevka village, where in summer 1982 the brood was recorded; in Charyn grove; and in Ile valley (down up to Malay Sary mts.) where appeared in 2000. On dispersal and in wintering it observed in south up to northern shore of Caspian Sea, Karaganda and northern foothills of Tien Shan (Almaty area).

Biology

Common, in places rare resident, in non-breeding time makes short-distance migrations. Inhabits deciduous and mixed forests with shrub undergrowth, in river valleys or near stream often, on plains and in mountains up to 1500 m. On autumn - winter dispersing occurs in pine forests, groves, and in parks and gardens in towns. In breeding areas appears in March – April. Breeds in separate pairs, at distance 0.5-1 km one from another. Massive nest is built by both partners in tree or in bush at height 0.5-17 m above the ground; nest is built from moss, lichen and grass strips and is lined with plenty of feathers. Clutch of 10-14 eggs is laid in mid-April – May. Female incubates clutch for 11-15 days. Both parents feed juveniles which fledge at age 15-16 days old, in end May to early August. Autumn dispersal in flocks of 20-100 birds begins in late July, outside the breeding range appear mainly in September - October.

Subspecies

Aegithalos caudatus caudatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург, Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Aegithalos caudatus caudatus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

other names

Длиннохвостая синица

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2018-12-11

Сергей Резниченко: Спасибо, Дмитрий.

2018-12-11

Шевцов Дмитрий: Здесь тоже белохвост по тем же признакам + светлые без контрастов голова и шея.

2018-11-30

Сергей Л. Волков: Думал я, что у хохотуньи маховые в апреле не столь сильно обтрепанные. А оказывается, бывают такие. Но при этом бывают и совсем целые. Интересно,
[....]

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