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Turkestan Tit

Parus bokharensis (Lichtenstein, 1823)

Бухарская синица | Сұр шымшық

2012-04-09
Syrdaria river near Bairkum bridge. South Kazakhstan oblast.
© Andrey Kovalenko

Distribution

Lives in deserts and foothills of southern parts of Kazakhstan. Please see detailed distribution in the section Subspecies.

Biology

Common resident. Inhabits saxaul, deciduous and riparian forests, groves and shelterbelts in plains and in foothills at altitudes up to 1200-1500 m. On dispersal occurs also in juniper forests (to 1800 m). Pairs are formed since mid-February. Breeds in separate pairs, often close one to another. Nest is located in tree hole (natural or bored by Woodpecker); nest is built from thin twigs, dry grass and leaves and is lined mainly by hair and feathers. Clutch of 4-8 eggs is laid in end of April to June. Both parents feed juveniles which fledge in end of May to early August. Rears two broods per season; re-nesting after loss of first clutch is common. During dispersion in autumn–winter time occurs singly or in small groups of 5-10 bird.

Subspecies

Parus bokharensis bokharensis (Lichtenstein, 1823)

    Description. The lightest and smallest race. On upper parts bluish tinge is well developed. Male wing 64.5-70.0, female 62.0-66.5 mm. Male bill 7.6-9.0, female 7.4-9.0 mm.
    Distribution. Breeds from eastern coast of Aral Sea and Syrdarya delta eastward to Chu valley. Isolated breeding populations occur on Mangyshlak, in Ushtogan sands, where the nest with clutch was found, and on middle part of Emba valley, where adult and juvenal birds recorded in June.

Parus bokharensis ferghanensis (Buturlin, 1912)

    Description. Upper parts are darker, more grey-bluish, less pure-bluish; general size is bigger than in bokharensis. Male wing 67.0-75.4, female 65.0-72.2 mm. Male bill 8.3-9.2, female 8.0-9.4 mm.
    Distribution. Breeds in Western Tien Shan (Pskem and Ugam ridges). In Aksu-Dzhabagly Reserve breedы from 1983. Probably this race lives in Karatau (Besaryk river) and in Borolday, where 1982-1985 it breeds in nest-boxes. Recent years it became common an autumn at Chokpak Pass. On dispersal rarely occurs outside the breeding range.

Parus bokharensis turkestanicus (Zarudny et Loudon, 1905)

    Description. Upper parts are darker than in bokharensis, but lighter than in ferghanensis. Bill is larger and more massive than in other races. Male wing 68.2-73.5, female 68.2-70.7 mm. Male bill 8.6-9.6, female 8.8-10.0 mm.
    Distribution. Breeds from western edge of Balkhash lake and Ile valley in north to Alakol depression. On dispersal rarely occurs outside the breeding range.

References

"Птицы Казахстана" том 4. "Наука". Алма-Ата, 1972. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005.

supplement

subspecies

Parus bokharensis bokharensis
(Lichtenstein, 1823)
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Parus bokharensis ferghanensis
(Buturlin, 1912)
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Parus bokharensis turkestanicus
(Zarudny et Loudon, 1905)
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hybrids

Parus (bokharensis x major)
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