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Pine Bunting

Emberiza leucocephala (S.G.Gmelin, 1771)

Белошапочная овсянка | Ақбас сұлыкеш
spring male

2012-05-17
Almaty area. Charyn.
© Andrey Kovalenko

Distribution

Breeds in Saur, Southwest Altai and Kalbinskiy Altai, in foothills up to Semipalatinsk; lives in Pavlodar Trans-Irtysh area and in forest-steppe of Northern Kazakhstan, in south to Alekseyevka and Karaganda. Episodically breeds in Dzhungarskiy Alatau (at Dzerzhinskoye) and in Tien Shan near Narynkol, at Malyy Topchak in Tekes valley, in Kumurchi gorge, Ketmen ridge, in Kurmekty, Kungey Alatau and in Charyn valley near Aktogay. In summer recorded in Karkaralinsk. On migration occurs in eastern half of Kazakhstan mainly, in west to Syrdarya, but sometimes in Ural valley, down to Atyrau. Wintering sometimes in Zaysan depression, foothills of Dzhungarskiy Alatau and Tien Shan, in Ile delta, but usually in southern Kazakhstan.

Biology

Common breeding migrant, in non-breeding areas common winter visitor. Inhabits the coniferous and mixed forests with bush undergrowth and tall grass at altitudes 600-2000 m; on migration and wintering occurs in open lands with shrubs and trees, in shelterbelts, gardens, thickets of tall weeds and in villages. The spring migration in southern Kazakhstan begins in mid-February - early March in flocks of up to 30-40 birds and finishes in mid-April. In northern areas Pine Buntings appears in end of March – early April, migration finishes in the end of April. Breeds in separate pairs. Nest is located on the ground under the bush or grass; nest is built from the dry grass and leaves and is lined with thin stems and sometimes with hair. Probably only female builds nest. Clutch of 4-5, rarely 6 eggs is laid in May to mid-July. Only female incubates clutch. Both parents feed nestling. Rears two broods per season. Autumn migration begins in September - early October in flocks of 10-70 birds (often together with Yellowhammer), and finishes in early November.

Subspecies

Emberiza leucocephala leucocephala (S.G.Gmelin, 1771)

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Издательство Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Emberiza leucocephala leucocephala
(S.G.Gmelin, 1771)

hybrids

Emberiza (leucocephala x citrinella)
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